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Lorie Goshin Biography & Abstract
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Dr. lorie smith goshin, pHd, RN
Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing in the City University of New York












Lorie Smith Goshin, PhD, RN, is an assistant professor at the Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing in the City University of New York. She received a Masters in Parent-Child Nursing from the University of Texas at Austin and a PhD and postdoctoral research scientist training at Columbia University. Dr. Goshin’s research explores health inequities experienced by criminal justice-involved women and their children. She was co-investigator on a National Institute of Nursing Research-funded study of long-term outcomes for women and children who lived together in a prison nursery. She has also conducted funded research on alternatives to incarceration programs that allow women to remain in the community with their children. In August 2013, she was invited to the White House to present this research. Dr. Goshin is currently principal investigator on a study of psychological and physiological parenting stress, the maternal-child relationship and child health when a mother is on probation or parole. She would like to thank AWHONN and the March of Dimes for generously funding the study of perinatal nursing care of incarcerated pregnant women in hospital settings. 



Background/Significance: Women are the fastest growing incarcerated population in the US. An estimated 3-10% of this population is pregnant upon intake into jail or prison. Pregnant incarcerated women are routinely shackled during pregnancy and postpartum recovery in hospital settings. Shackling is the practice of applying restraints to women’s hands, feet, and/or abdomens to prevent security and flight risk. They create potentially life-threatening patient safety risks in pregnant women. Shackling of incarcerated pregnant women continues despite efforts to change the context of care through anti-shackling position statement and state laws/policies.

Perinatal nurses’ knowledge of the AWHONN position statement and state laws/policies remain unexamined, as do their attitudes, perceptions of behavioral norms, and perceptions of control over the care of incarcerated women.


Purpose: Framed by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Link & Phelan’s conceptualization of stigma, the purpose of this study is to investigate the following aims among U.S. perinatal nurses: 1) Describe the experience of providing nursing care to incarcerated pregnant women in U.S. community hospital settings; 2) Assess knowledge of AWHONN’s position statement and individual state laws/policies on shackling of incarcerated pregnant women; and 3) Test a TPB-based explanatory model to explain perinatal nurses’ behavioral intentions to adhere to AWHONN recommended care of pregnant incarcerated women.


Methods: This study will be conducted in two phases: 1) pilot testing and refinement of the investigator- developed survey; and 2) a cross-sectional web-based survey of 8,000 U.S. perinatal nurses.


Implications: Efforts to improve perinatal care for incarcerated pregnant women must be multifaceted and multilevel- changing the context of care, as well as addressing provider attitudes and other barriers to adhering to recommended standards of care. Perinatal nurses, as patient advocates, could play a critical role in bridging the gap between legally-acceptable, clinically recommended care and the care that evidence suggests is currently being given to this population. Results of this study will inform development of theory- and evidence- based educational interventions to improve perinatal nursing care of incarcerated pregnant women.

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